(First published in Arteidolia; March 2016)
“Why jail a poet?” asks Randee Silv as she discusses the case of Qatari poet Mohammed Ibn al-Dheeb al-Ajami, who had been targeted by the tyrannical rule of his country. [Fortunately the poet was later released.]
Why do tyrants jail poets? The answer is simple: they can’t stand any deviation from their prescribed world outlook. Characteristically, all dictatorial regimes become increasingly intolerant of any sound, image or phrase that reveals even the slightest hint of defiance.
Let me elaborate on this in the context of Eritrea, my homeland.
To set the scene: Eritrea is listed as the last country (No. 180) on Reporters Without Borders’ 2015 World Press Freedom Index and the most censored country on the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ)’s 2015 list. It “is the least connected country on earth”; only 1 percent of Eritreans have access to the Internet (and even then, with a very slow dial-up connection). In addition, Eritrea is the “worst jailer of journalists in sub-Saharan Africa,” and the world’s worst abuser of due process” according to CPJ. Many journalists have been incarcerated incommunicado for more than 14 years.Continue reading
(First published in Africa is A Country; Sept. 24, 2015)
Borderlines (2015) is Michela Wrong’s debut novel. Taking the perspective of a British narrator named Paula, it tells the tale of a newly-independent fictitious African nation named North Darrar, which relapses into border conflict with its neighbour. Although the country is never mentioned, Wrong’s North Darrar looks very much like the real African nation of Eritrea. The story very much seems like a fictionalized account of events and anecdotes that took place in Eritrea in the last decade, events which Wrong has written extensively on in other publications.Continue reading
(ኣብ መርበብ ሓበሬታ ፐን ኤርትራ ካብ ዝተሓትመ)
ፎቶግራፍን ተንቀሳቓሲን ስእሊ ኤርትራ ክለዓል መለቀብታ ቅጽል ዘየድልዮ ስዩም ጸሃየ፡ ኣብ 1952 ካብታ 12 ቈልዑ ዝፈረየት ስድራቤት ኣቶ ጸሃየ ወልደማርያምን ወ/ሮ ሮማ ሰሎሞንን ኣብ ትዅል ተወሊዱ። ኣብ ትዅል ደኣ ይወለድ እምበር፡ ኣብ ከባቢ ጸጸራት ኣስመራ ክዓቢ ከሎ፡ ትምህርቱ’ውን ኣብ ኣስመር’ዩ ተኸተቲሉ። እዛ ብዙሓት ቈልዑ ዝወለደት ስድራ ማዕረ ብዝሒ ዝፈረየቶም ደቂ’ያ ንቓልሲ ናጽነት ኣሰሊፋ። ስዩም ዝርከቦም ሸሞንተ ደቂ ንገድሊ ተሰሊፎም፣ እስቲፋኖስ ዝተባህለ ኣባል እዛ ስድራ ንስለ ናጽነት ኣብ ዝተኻየደ ቃልሲ ክስዋእ ከሎ፡ እቶም ሸውዓተ ግን ብሰላም ተመሊሶም። ኣደ ስዩም ወይዘሮ ሮማ እውን ብተመሳሳሊ ኣብ ኣስር ደቀን ብምጽናዕ፡ ሓፋሽ-ውድብ ኰይነን ንነዊሕ ዓመታት ሰሪሐን። ስድራቤት ጸሃየ ወልደማርያም ደሓን ደረጃ መነባብሮ ስለ ዝነበሮም (ኣብ ኣስመራ ከባቢ መዓስከር ቃኘው እትርከብ ሲማፎሮ ዘላ ባር ዳኦስታ’ውን ዋንነታ ናይዛ ስድራ’ያ)፡ ስዩም ናብ ዝሓሸ ቤት ትምህርቲ ክለኣኽ ኣኽኢሉዎ።
(ምስ ስዩም ጸሃየ ውልቃዊ ሌላ ኣይነበረናን፣ ኣብዚ ዝጠቕሶ ሓበሬታ ግን ሓያሎ መጋድልቱ ዝነበሩ’ሞ ስሞም ክዕቀበሎም ካብ ዝሓተቱ ወይ ድማ ቤተሰቡ ዝትረኸበ ሓበሬታ’ዩ።)
ስዩም ተመሃራይ ኣላይንስ ፍራንስ ብምንባሩ፡ ብዘይካ’ቲ ምልከት ቋንቋታት ፈረንሳይ፡ ጣልያንን እንግሊዘኛን ኣብ ባህሪ’ውን ካብ ብዙሓት መዛንኡ ዝተፈልየ ጽልዋ ከም ዝነበሮ መሳቱኡ ይምስክሩ። ስዩም ፈለማ ኣብ ኣስመራ ትምህርቱ ድሕሪ ምክትታል፡ ናብ ኣዲስ-ኣበባ ብምኻድ ኣብ ፍረንች-ኮለጅ ትምህርቱ ቀጸለ’ሞ ድሕሪ ምውዳኡ ድማ መምህር ቋንቋ ፈረንሳይ ኰይኑ ንሓደ ዓመት ኣብ ኣስመራ ሰርሐ። ሕጂ’ውን ኣብ ኣስመራ ዝነበረ እብኡብ ህይወት ክጸሮ ስለ ዘይክኣለን በቲ-በቲ’ውን ምስ ቃልሲ መስመር ስለ ዝጸንሖን ድማ ኣብ 1977 ናብ ቃልሲ ወጸ።
ድሕሪ ታዕሊም ስዩም ናብ ኣሃዱ ሃንደሳ’ዩ ተመዲቡ። ሓያሎ መጋድልቱ ዘዘንትዉዋን ስዩም ባዕሉ’ውን ቀጻሊ ዝጠቕሳ ዝነበረትን ዘይትርሳዕ ግዜ ኣብ ኣሃዱ ሃንደሳ ተመዲቡ ኣብ ዝነበረሉ ፈለማ ዓመታት ቃልሲ’ዩ። እታ ጋንታ ሃንደሳ ንጸላኢ ኣብ ዝቐርብ ድፋዓት ቅድመ-ግንባር (ምናልባት ከባቢ ግንባር ከረን) ተፈልያ ነዊሕ ጸኒሓ። ኣብታ ጋንታ ዝርአ ዝነበረ መለሳ-ኣልቦ ህይወትን ኣንጻር ምሁራን ዝቐንዐ መልክዑ ዝሓዘ ኣጠማምታን’ውን ንብዙሕ ክገልጽ ዝኽእል ይመስለኒ። ስዩም እቲ “ደርቢ ምስባር” ዝብል ኣካይዳ ስለ ዘይኣመነሉ ጥራይ ዘይኰነስ፡ ኣብ ቃልሲ ዝህሉዎ ኣሉታዊ ጽልዋ ከም ዝዓቢ ስለ ዝተገንዘበ፡ ብሸዓኡ’ዩ ኣንጻሩ ደው ኢሉ። እታ ጋንታ ምስ ካልኦት ኣሃዱታት ኣብ ዘይትራኸበሉ ሓዲግ ቦታ ብምዃናን ብተዛማዲ ስራሓ’ውን ኣብ ቀጻሊ ወተሃደራዊ ንጥፈታት ትሳተፍ ብዘይ ምንባራ፡ ኣብ መንጎ ኣባላት ዝህሉ ምጥምማት ዝዓበየ ስራሕ ኰነ።Continue reading
(First published in Arteidolia; June 2016)
Predictably, Eritrea has hit the bottom list (#180), two years in row, in World Press Freedom Index in a report compiled by Reporters Without Borders. Compounding to the absolute information control and monotonous recycling of propaganda are centralization of the arts or abating independent artists through ubiquitous censorship. Enough has been written about the media and centralization of information; therefore, I will share my firsthand account of how the body of arts and censorship operate.Continue reading
(First published in Music in Africa; March 10, 2016)
A long history of censorship, combined with the state’s comprehensive control of the arts sector, has crippled the Eritrean music industry. This unfavorable environment has forced many musicians into exile in other countries. Many of them do not return, while the young continue to flee. This text provides an overview of Eritrean music in exile.
Exiled Eritrean star Abraham Afwerki, who died tragically in 2006. Photo: YouTube
During the pre-independence and colonial era, Eritrean music was characterised by an emotional intensity that prescribed a love for life and nation. It set the tone for the nation’s struggle against repression. Shortly after Ethiopia’s illegal subjugation of Eritrea began after the second World War, Eritrean singers refused to sing as Ethiopian citizens. Haile Selassie’s rule made every effort to ban and discourage Eritrean musicians from performing in national languages such as Tigrinya, which was a source of nationalistic fervor at the time.Continue reading
(From Télam, Argentine National News Agency)
NO PROVIENEN DE UN PAÍS EN GUERRA, PERO REPRESENTAN LA SEGUNDA NACIONALIDAD DE LOS CIENTOS DE MILES DE REFUGIADOS QUE LLEGARON ESTE AÑO A LAS COSTAS EUROPEAS. SÓLO EN LA ÚLTIMA DÉCADA, MÁS DE UN 5% DE LA POBLACIÓN DE ERITREA ESCAPÓ DE UNA DE LAS DICTADURAS MÁS OPRESIVAS DEL MUNDO.Continue reading