(First published in Music in Africa; May 13, 2016)

This text provides an overview of the Eritrean media, particularly as it relates to the local music industry.

Eritrean Voices show producers in studio. Photo: www.thecitizen.org.au
Eritrean Voices show producers in studio. Photo: www.thecitizen.org.au
 After Eritrea’s independence in 1991, music continued to be used for political reasons – but this time, by Eritrea’s government against its own people. Various bands worked directly under the party’s organs and the army, producing a disproportionate number of songs for the many national holidays that fill up the Eritrean calendar. Only songs produced in this fashion received substantial media airplay. This tradition has resulted in an “echo chamber” in which Eritrean artists produce music that they know the state-controlled media want – despite the songs’ obvious lack of quality, integrity or creativity. Singers are rewarded according to how well their songs are received in the state media and how much airtime they receive. This sort of “success” opens further opportunities for these artists to tour outside the country.

While the state media heavily promotes music that fulfills their own agenda, this does not necessarily improve the quality of productions. With the almost constant playing of patriotic songs on national radio and TV, it’s difficult to gauge how the music is really being received. The public’s continuous exposure to mediocre music results in a limited ability to discern what good-quality music actually is. There’s little or no objective standard for quality music in Eritrea – no knowledgeable music critics, very little musical scholarship and little access to decent, freely-made music from outside the country.Click here to read the whole article from Music in Africa.

(First published in PEN International; April, 04, 2016)




When they start working, state journalists are immediately forced to master the unwritten laws of the Ministry of Information. This trend is self-perpetuating, cultivating a reliably obedient body that ensures continuity. The Ministry hires journalists mainly from the army or from the pool of high-school graduates who have not attended college. College graduates who have gone through journalistic training are immediately forced to compromise their professional integrity or are coerced into “unlearning” ethical and journalistic standards in order to survive.

News reporting is centralized with little or no autonomy. The national news agency, ERINA, produces what passes as national news, and translates international news from cherry-picked media outlets. Without any adjustment of wording for different media outlets, the exact same news simultaneously appears in all official organs of print and broadcast media on the same day, even when communicated in different languages. Even the least important local news is sifted through tight filters. Ali Abdu, who served as Minister of Information for about 10 years before he fled the regime in 2012 (after successfully institutionalizing thought control and fear), at one point was approving every news item before it was published. Click here to read the whole article from PEN International.

(First published in The Athens News; June 22, 2016)

The article is on the last basketball game and historical victory of the Cleveland Cavaliers and does not mention Donald Trump. (Oops! I already did, but this should be the last mention.)

 A Little Background

A native of Eritrea, a small country in the Horn of Africa, I have lived about four years in United States. One of the constant reminders of being away from home is the complete shift in sports language and (un)learning new games. The first shock is using “football” to refer to what I have called all my life “American football.” As a form of bold defiance, I insist on calling it “American football” and am still resisting the use of “soccer” to refer to football.

In countries other than the United States, non-American football is the most popular game and the main subject of casual conversation. Yet the wildly popular World Cup and matches involving the English Premiere League, and Spanish and Italian La Liga, are barely discussed in the U.S.Continue reading

(First published in English PEN; May 3, 2016)


Today, on World Press Freedom Day, the director of PEN Eritrea in Exile shares his experience of life as a journalist in Eritrea, the country ranked worst in the world (180th) for press freedom in a report by Reporters without Borders.


English PEN image2

In Kafka’s classic psychological novel The Trial, unidentified authorities suddenly show up one morning and inform Joseph K. that he’s under arrest. Mr. K. proclaims his innocence and tells a lengthy story in his own defence. Unfortunately, in this repressive world, the very fact of an arrest renders one guilty. A seemingly never-ending, nonsensical court case follows. Throughout, K. is never officially charged or even aware of the charges against him. K.’s sense of self and well-being is systematically destroyed by the incessant harassment and the torment of constantly being watched by anonymous authorities.

In the modern Eritrean media-scape, one faces similar hazards, including constant fear and uncertainty. Journalists carry the gut-churning knowledge that they could be found guilty merely by association and/or friendship, facing severe punishment without a trial. Click here to read the article from English PEN.

(From PEN America Jan. 2016)

The PEN World series showcases the important work of the more than 140 centers that form PEN International. Each PEN center sets its own priorities, but they are united by their commitment to advocate for imperiled writers, promote literature from all cultures and in all languages, and advance the right of every individual to speak freely. In this series, PEN America interviews the leaders of different PEN centers from the global network to offer a window into the literary accomplishments and free expression challenges of their respective countries.

This month we feature PEN Eritrea. We spoke to Abraham Tesfalul Zere, executive director of PEN Eritrea in exile.Continue reading

(First Published in The Guardian; August 19, 2015)

Eritrea journalists

Eritrea has become one of the world’s worst offenders for human rights abuses over the last decade, imprisoning the third highest number journalists – after China and Iran.

Those writers who remain face stringent censorship in a media climate characterised by the monotonous recycling of official information put out by a paranoid government.

In response to these conditions, Eritrean journalists in exile set up PEN Eritrea, an organisation to connect this inaccessible country and the outside world, and to campaign on behalf of the country’s imprisoned journalists, many of whom have been jailed for more than a decade without contact with their families. Click here to read the article from The Guardian.

Three men who play key role in crusade against repression in Eritrea, Africa, work from Athens


Freedom of expression is a concept that is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution and is embedded in American culture and history. Many countries throughout the world have similar protections but a lot don’t. Quite the contrary.

In an effort to bring light to the extreme censorship and persecution that journalists face in their home country, exiled Eritrean writers founded the organization, or center, PEN Eritrea. Three of its members – Abraham Zere, Ghirmai Negash and Yonatan Tewelde – manage the center’s website and content from Athens, Ohio.

Continue reading

(ኣብ መርበብ ሓበሬታ ፐን ኤርትራ ካብ ዝተሓትመ)

1971፡ ካብታ ሸውዓተ ቈልዑ ዝወለደት ስድራቤት ኣስራት መብራህቱን ኣብርሃጽዮን ሃይለን ኣብ ኣስመራ ዝተወልደ ኣማኑኤል: ምንኣስ ቦኽሪ ኰይኑ: መባእታ ኣብቲ ሽዑ “ሰሜናዊ” ተባሂሉ ዝጽዋዕ ዝነበረ፣ ማእከላይ ደረጃ ኣብ ቤት-ትምህርቲ ሽወደን ኣኽርያ፣ ካልኣይ ደረጃ ድማ ኣብ ሳንታ-ኣና (ናይ ሎሚ ሰማእታት) ወዲኡ። ብድሕሪኡ ኣብ 1989 ናብ ባህርዳር ብምኻድ ፔዳጎጂ (ትምህርቲ ስነ-ምምህርና) ንሓደ ዓመት ተኸታቲሉ። ኣብ 1990 ድማ ናብ ህዝባዊ ግንባር ብምንጽባር: ኣብ ቤት-ትምህርቲ ሰውራ ክሳብ መስከረም 1992 መምህር ኰይኑ ኣገልጊሉ። ድሕሪኡ ኣብ 1992 ናብቲ ሽዑ ዳግም ዝተኸፍተ ዩኒቨርስቲ ኣስመራ ብምእታው፡ትምህርቲ መሬትን ዕቃበ ማይን (soil science and water conservation) ኣጽኒዑ። ኣማኑኤል (ስድራቤቱን ናይ ቀረባ የዕሩኽቱን ዝምስክሩሉ) ንኻልኦት ከረድእን ንሰብ ከሕግዝን ዝያዳ ጸዓት ዘጥፍእን ብውልቁ ከጽንዕ ዘይረአን ደኣ ይንበር እምበር (ከም ኣብ ካልእ ዓውዲ ዝነበሮ ትኵርነትን ትዕድልቲን): ኣብ ትምህርቲ’ውን ጸብለልታ ስለ ዝነበሮ: ብዝለዓለ ነጥቢ ተመሪቑ። ድሕሪ መመረቕታኡ ኣብ ኣብ ሚኒስትሪ መሬት፡ ማይን ኣከባቢን ክሰርሕ ድሕሪ ምጽናሕ ድማ ኣብ ዶባዊ ኲናት ኤርትሮ-ኢትዮጵያ ከቲቱ ኣብ ኣሃዱ ሃንደሳ ተመዲቡ ክሳብ ግዜ ማእሰርቱ የገልግል ነይሩ።

Amanuel Asrat2

ዋናኣሰናዳኢ ኣማኑኤል ኣስራት

ኣማኑኤል ኣስራት ዋና ኣሰናዳኢ ናይታ ብለካቲት 1999 ዝጀመረት ጋዜጣ ዘመን ኰይኑ: ናብ ሰንበት ዕለት 23 መስከረም 2001 ኣብ ዘውግሐ ንግሆ ካብ ገዛኡ ብኣባላት ጸጥታ ምስ ተወስደ ክሳብ ሎሚ ኣብ ቤት-ማእሰርቲ ዒራዒሮ ከም ዘሎ ዳሕረዎት በብወገኖም ዝፈለቑ ክሳብ ሕጂ ወጺኦም ዘለዉ ዝደሓሩ ሓበሬታት የመልክቱ። ምእሳር ኣማኑኤል ምስ ምዕጻው ብሕታውያን ጋዜጣታትን ምእሳር ኣሰናዳእተንን ዝተሓሓዝ ምዃኑ ርዱእ ኰይኑ: ምስ ብጾቱ ጋዜጣኛታት: ኣድማ ምሕሳም መግቢ ገይሮም ክሳብ ዝግዕዙ: ኣብ ቀዳማይ መደበር ፖሊስ ኣስመራ ንውሑድ እዋናት ጸኒሑ ነይሩ።Continue reading

(First published in PEN International; Dec. 10, 2015)


Even though I believe I am in a secure space, I feel eternally tied to my home country. Each day I am reminded of being out of place. Carrying the badge of “legal alien” or “asylee” – not to mention the acute lack of familiarity and sense of belonging – I keep telling myself that I have a better home waiting for me, perhaps somewhere else.

But with every change of address, city and zip code, the concept of “home” also becomes more fluid. Now “home” has been reduced to my mailing address. Although exile guarantees security and safety, as a writer I’ve found that it does not necessarily present the best opportunity to produce better work.

The new space is a source of disillusionment. The new freedom to write and the sudden abolishing of the censorship yoke, might give momentary high, but for me it remains characterised by estrangement. Click here to read the whole article published in PEN International.

(First published in Africa is A Country; June 9, 2015)

Having lived all my life in Eritrea, I left the country in January 2012. Some European countries have recently claimed the situation in Eritrea has improved in order to justify accepting less Eritrean refugees. I wanted to share my firsthand experience of what daily life is like in Eritrea – a country with the highest ratio of imprisoned journalists that does not allow international media. Yesterday, a new report from the UN Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea said “It is not law that rules Eritreans – but fear.”


National ceremonies to distract from a grim reality

Eritrea is a country engaged in continuous cycles of ceremonies. The Independence Day celebration (May 24) goes on for about ten days in which the whole country shuts down and the media continuously broadcast footage of the armed struggle. It is followed by Martyr’s Day (June 20) and then a ten days long National Festival. After the festival comes the Commemoration of the Armed Struggle (September 1). Those nationalistic holidays are coupled with Christian and Muslim holidays; all are broadcast live on the national TV station. Click here to continue reading the article from Africa is A Country.